Artículo

Efectos del Aislamiento, Social, Preventivo y Obligatorio (ASPO) por COVID-19 en la infancia: cuidados, vulnerabilidades y afrontamiento

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Resumen

Los efectos provocados por el COVID en la vida cotidiana requieren particular atención en la infancia por la dependencia de los adultos para acceder a recursos y experiencias que favorezcan el bienestar y la menor autonomía y posibilidades que poseen para proveerse de un entorno apropiado a sus necesidades y potencialidades. Para ello, el proyecto aborda los efectos del aislamiento social, preventivo y obligatorio (ASPO) en la alimentación, en el desarrollo psicosocial y socioemocional, en los aprendizajes escolares, en las actividades recreativas, en la socialización con pares, en los afectos y en los vínculos parentales. El interés se centra en cómo se llevan a cabo y perciben los cuidados (cuidarse, ser cuidado y cuidar en el marco de la pandemia) tanto por parte de los adultos como desde la propia experiencia y perspectiva de niños, niñas y adolescentes, teniendo especial preocupación en quienes viven en contextos de vulnerabilidad. En síntesis, el objetivo general es conocer y dimensionar la incidencia del ASPO en las actividades y relaciones cotidianas y dar conocer -y dimensionar- los efectos del aislamiento en niños, niñas y adolescentes, su incidencia en las actividades y relaciones cotidianas y dar cuenta de las estrategias implementadas por los hogares para atenderlos y la presencia de programas sociales y redes comunitarias en el cuidado infantil. Los resultados del estudio permiten recuperar de manera integral, los efectos del ASPO en la población de niños niñas y adolescentes, identificando la desigualdad que ellos expresan en distintas dimensiones de la vida cotidiana, cómo se tramitan los cuidados y se manifiestan modalidades de afrontamiento.

The effects caused by COVID in daily life require particular attention in childhood due to the dependence on adults to access resources and experiences that favor wellbeing, and because the less autonomy and possibilities they have to provide themselves with an environment that is appropriate for their needs and potentialities. Hence, the project addresses the effects of social, preventive and compulsory isolation (ASPO, Spanish acronym) on feeding, psychosocial and emotional development, school learning, recreational activities, peer socialization, affection and parental ties. The research focuses on how care (taking care of oneself, being cared and caring for others during the pandemic) is pursued and perceived both by adults and children and adolescents themselves, specially concerning about those living in contexts of vulnerability. In summary, the general aim is to know and size the incidence of ASPO in daily activities and relationships and to account and size the effects of isolation on children and adolescents, its impact on daily activities and relationships and identify the household strategies to nurse them and the social programs and community networks involved in child care. The research is based on a sequential mixed methods design with three moments or steps. The first step implies a qualitative approach focused on individual and group semi-structured interviews carried out by phone or video call. The sample was intentional and involved community, health and education key people. The second step consisted on a quantitative approach over a representative sample of public and private schools, including kindergarten, primary and secondary schools. It involved a phone and online poll through a semi-structured questionnaire to households with children and adolescent (from 3 to 17 years old) of La Plata, Berisso and Ensenada. The third step aimed at identifying children and adolescents´ experiences through ad hoc devices focused on written and artistic outputs. The results of the investigation show the incidence of ASPO on children and adolescents in a comprehensive way, identifying the inequalities that the effects express in different dimensions of daily life, how the care are addressed and how the modes of coping are rehearsed.

Palabras clave
cuidados
infancia
Aislamiento Social
COVID-19
Afrontamiento
care
Childhood
Isolation
Coping
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