Are Oxidative Stress Biomarkers Sensitive to Environmental Concentrations of Chlorpyrifos Exposed to the Freshwater Crab, Zilchiopsis collastinensis (Decapoda; Trichodactylidae)?
Global trends in pesticide use can increase aquatic pollution and affect resident fisheries. Crabs exposed to organophosphate pesticides, such as chlorpyrifos, may increase production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), affecting the pro-oxidant/antioxidant balance. Zichiopsis collastinensis crabs were exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of chlorpyrifos (0.1 and 0.5 μg L− 1). Effects on the oxidative stress enzymes catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione S-transferases, glutathione reductase, and on thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and hydrogen peroxide concentrations were evaluated at four intervals during 96 h exposures. Exposures caused decreased GST activity and increased H2O2 levels in gills. There were modifications of GST, CAT and SOD activities in the hepatopancreas after 12 h of exposure, and an increase of H2O2 levels at every exposure interval observed. The present study proved that chlorpyrifos lead to oxidative stress in Z. collastinensis. However other enzymatic/non-enzymatic responses should be further investigated in order to be included as part of a battery of biomarkers, together with H2O2 levels, which is a parameter highly recommended to be taken into account.