Species composition and genetic structure of Fusarium graminearum species complex populations affecting the main barley growing regions of South America
Members of the Fusarium graminearum species complex (FGSC), such as F. graminearum and F. asiaticum, are the main cause of fusarium head blight (FHB) of wheat and barley worldwide. In this study, 117 FGSC isolates obtained from commercial barley grain produced in Argentina (n = 43 isolates), Brazil (n = 35), and Uruguay (n = 39) were identified to species and trichothecene genotypes, and analysed using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) markers. In addition, reductase (RED) and trichothecene 3-Oacetyltransferase (Tri101) were sequenced for a subset of 24 isolates. The majority of the isolates (n = 103) were identified as F. graminearum, which was the only species found in Argentina. In Uruguay, only one F. cortaderiae isolate was found among F. graminearum isolates. In Brazil, F. graminearum also dominated the collection (22/35), followed by F. meridionale (8/35), F. asiaticum (2/35), F. cortaderiae (2/35) and F. austroamericanum (1/35). Species were structured by trichothecene genotype: all F. graminearum were of the 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (ADON), F. meridionale, F. asiaticum and F. cortaderiae were of the nivalenol (NIV), and F. austroamericanum was of the 3 ADON genotype. Both AFLP and SRAP data showed high levels of genetic variability, which was higher within than among countries. Isolates were not structured by country of origin. SRAP analysis grouped F. graminearum in a separate cluster from the other species within the complex. However, AFLP analysis failed to resolve the species into distinct clades with partial clustering of F. meridionale, F. austroamericanum, F. asiaticum and F graminearum isolates.