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Acceso AbiertoMycorrhizas in South American Anthropic Environments(Springer, 2019) Pagano, Marcela C.; Falcão, Newton; Weber, Olmar B.; Correa, Eduardo A.; Faggioli, Valeria S.; Grilli, Gabriel; Covacevich, Fernanda; Cabello, Marta Noemí; Pagano, Marcela A.; Lugo, Mónica A.The agricultural expansion has leaded to increase the irrigated cropland area and the use of fertilizers, resulting in water degradation, increased energy use, and common pollution. Of particular concern is the increased interest to reduce the environmental impacts of high quantities of water dedicated to irrigation by agricultural activities We are now truly recognizing the importance of sustainable measures in agriculture such as conservation of the vegetation cover and management approach to understand surface and deep soil responses to global change. The agroecology management based on key processes from natural ecosystems can help to solve some agricultural difficulties. Increasing studies on the Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) has showed their importance for soil ecology and studies on their biodiversity have spread in some agro-ecosystems such as corn and soybean monocultures. Therefore, it is needed to deeply study the mycorrhizal functions under global change. In this chapter, we examine the major developments and advances on mycorrhizal fungi based on recent research from South American countries. New reports on the occurrence of mycorrhizas in Amazonian dark earth, as well as the inoculum production of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi native of soils under native forest covers, have resulted in a more detailed understanding of the soil biology from South America. Reports from Amazonian dark earth or “Terra preta do índio” soil has stimulated the use of biochar worldwide as a soil conditioner that can add value to non-harvested agricultural products and promote plant growth. Few reports from Brazil showed that the addition of inorganic fertilizer, compost and chicken manure resulted in increases in plant cover and plant species richness. In this sense, the biochar/mycorrhizae interactions also can be prioritized for sequestration of carbon in soils to contribute to climate change mitigation.
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Acceso AbiertoBiodiversity of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in South America: A Review(Springer, 2019) Cofré, María Noelia; Soteras, Florencia; Iglesias, María del Rosario; Velázquez, Silvana; Velázquez, Silvana; Abarca, Camila; Risio, Lucía; Ontivero, Emanuel; Cabello, Marta Noemí; Domínguez, Laura S.; Lugo, Mónica A.; Pagano, Marcela A.; Lugo, Mónica A.Identification of species is crucial in understanding how diversity changes affect ecosystemic processes. Particularly, soil microbial are key factors of ecosystemic functioning .Among soil microbes, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF, phylum Glomeromycota) are worldwide distributed and form symbiotic associations with almost 80% of the vascular plants of the earth, except for one species, Geosiphon pyriformis, which associates with the cyanobacteria Nostoc. AMF comprise around 300 morphologically defined or 350–1000 molecularly defined taxa. Since AMF associate with aboveground community, their occurrence and composition can influence ecosystemic processes either through affecting plant community composition and thus its processes rates, or soil microbial communities, which are directly involved in nutrient cycling. Soil microorganisms are considered a potentially suitable target for studying regional and local effects on diversity. The symbiosis with AMF not only increases nutrient uptake by the plant of mainly phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) in exchange for plant-assimilated carbon (C), but also improves the tolerance of plants to various biotic and abiotic stresses such as pathogens, salinity, and drought.
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Acceso AbiertoMicología Forense(Fundación Miguel Lillo, 2019) Tranchida, María Cecilia; Cabello, Marta Noemí; Ayón, María RosanaHasta hace muy poco tiempo, el uso de la Micología como evidencia en casos criminales y su empleo como prueba ante la justicia estaban restringidos a casos relacionados con especies venenosas o psicotrópicas. Sin embargo, durante los últimos años se han registrado algunas situaciones en las cuales la presencia de los hongos ha sido tenida en cuenta como prueba válida ante la justicia. El término micología forense es relativamente nuevo y hace referencia al empleo de los hongos como evidencia para la resolución de casos con intervención judicial. El objetivo principal de esta rama de la biología forense es datar intervalos post-mortem y post-entierro a partir de la biota fúngica hallada en la superficie de un cuerpo o en el entorno relacionado a un entierro clandestino.