Fermionic entanglement in the Lipkin model
We examine the fermionic entanglement in the ground state of the fermionic Lipkin model and its relation with bipartite entanglement. It is first shown that the one-body entanglement entropy, which quantifies the minimum distance to a fermionic Gaussian state, behaves similarly to the mean-field order parameter and is essentially proportional to the total bipartite entanglement between the upper and lower modes, a quantity meaningful only in the fermionic realization of the model. We also analyze the entanglement of the reduced state of four single-particle modes (two up-down pairs), showing that its fermionic concurrence is strongly peaked at the phase transition and behaves differently from the corresponding up-down entanglement. We finally show that the first measures and the up-down reduced entanglement can be correctly described through a basic mean-field approach supplemented with symmetry restoration, whereas the concurrence requires at least the inclusion of random-phase-approximation–type correlations for a proper prediction. Fermionic separability is also discussed.