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Communities of anamorphic fungi on green leaves and leaf litter of native forests of Scutia buxifolia and Celtis tala: composition, diversity, seasonality and substrate specificity

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Resumen

Background: Xeric forests dominated by two tree species, Scutia buxifolia (Rhamnaceae) and Celtis tala (Ulmacea), are temperate, semi-deciduous wooded communities that represent the most abundant woodlands on the eastern plains of Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. The district of Magdalena has one of the most well-preserved native-forest areas, with an environmental heterogeneity that gives rise to the wide variability in the vegetation present. Aims: The aim of this study was to analyze the species composition, diversity, seasonal variations, and substrate specificity of anamorphic fungi (Ascomycota) on the green leaves and in the leaf litter of native forests dominated by Scutia buxifolia and Celtis tala from Magdalena, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Methods: In order to obtain the mycobiota of decomposition, seasonal samples of green leaves and leaf litter from both types of trees were collected over a two-year period. In the laboratory, the leaves were placed in a moist chamber and incubated at room temperature. Results: A total of 100 species of anamorphic Ascomycota were identified in both forests. No significant variations were observed in the richness, diversity, or evenness of the fungal communities of the green leaves and leaf litter of both forests between seasons. Conclusions: The species that characterized the fungal communities in the leaves of each of the trees were found to be different. The type of substrate had a stronger influence in determining the composition of the fungal community in both types of forests.

Antecedentes: Los bosques xerófilos dominados por las especies arbóreas Scutia buxifolia (Rhamnaceae) y Celtis tala (Ulmaceae) conforman comunidades boscosas semicaducas y templadas que constituyen los bosques nativos más abundantes de la provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina. En el distrito de Magdalena constituyen una de las comunidades naturales de este tipo mejor conservada, con una heterogeneidad ambiental que da lugar a la gran variabilidad en la composición de la vegetación presente. Objetivos: El objetivo del presente trabajo fue analizar las distribución de especies, la diversidad, las variaciones estacionales y la especificidad por el sustrato de hongos anamórficos (Ascomycota) presentes en las hojas verdes y en la hojarasca de los bosques nativos xerófilos dominados por las especies arbóreas Scutia buxifolia y Celtis tala en el partido de Magdalena, provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina. Métodos: Para obtener la micobiota descomponedora se tomaron muestras estacionales de hojas verdes y hojarasca de los 2 tipos de árboles durante un período de 2 a˜nos. En el laboratorio, las hojas se colocaron en cámara húmeda y se incubaron a temperatura ambiente.

Palabras clave
Microfungi
Xeric forest
Leaf litter
Decomposition
Microhongos
Bosque xerófilo
Hojarasca
Descomposición
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