Diseases of Carnation
Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) is one of the most popular and traditional cut flowers worldwide. This species has been used extensively by breeders for centuries, and as a result many cultivated hybrids exist. Several diseases affect quality. Among fungal diseases caused by soilborne pathogens, Fusarium wilt is the most devastating carnation disease worldwide. None of the management practices currently available completely control Fusarium wilt of carnation; only the integration of different control measures allows management of the disease. The most important bacterial diseases affecting carnation are caused by Burkholderia species. This cut flower is affected by eight viruses that reduce the quantity and quality of production. The vegetative propagation of the crop favors the dispersal of these pathogens as well as the fungi and bacteria that colonize xylem tissues. So, meristem-tip culture of healthy mother plants is recommended. Several plant pathogenic nematode species of different trophic habits can infect carnation. Nevertheless, only root-knot and cyst nematodes, of the genera Meloidogyne and Heterodera, respectively, are of significance because of their economic impact. The integration of different control practices is the best strategy for the management of most diseases.