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Diagnosis and detection of different genotypes of Paenibacillus larvae, the causal agent of American Foulbrood disease

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American foulbrood (AFB) is the most contagious and destructive infectious disease affecting the larval and pupal stages of honey bees (Apis mellifera) and other Apis species. The causative agent, Paenibacillus larvae, is a Gram-positive bacterium that can produce over one billion spores in each infected larva. AFB occurs in temperate or subtropical regions throughout the world and leads to huge losses not only in the apicultural economy but also in pollination rates since Apis mellifera is the most widely used actively managed pollinator in the world. The disease is classified within the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) list and considered to be of socio-economic impact and significance in the international trade of bees and bee products. Only bacterial spores are capable of inducing the infection. Spores can remain viable for long periods and survive adverse conditions (desiccation, high temperatures, ultraviolet light exposure) and contact with standard disinfectants. The spread of the disease is facilitated by normal beekeeping practices, including exchanging hive components between colonies, maintaining many hives in a confined area, and trading queens, package bees and honey

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Paenibacillus larvae

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