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Duality and bosonization in Schwinger-Keldysh formulation


We present a path-integral bosonization approach for systems out of equilibrium based on a duality transformation of the original Dirac fermion theory combined with the Schwinger-Keldysh time closed contour technique, to handle the non-equilibrium situation. The duality approach to bosonization that we present is valid for D 2 space-time dimensions leading for D = 2 to exact results. In this last case we present the bosonization rules for fermion currents, calculate current-current correlation functions and establish the connection between the fermionic and bosonic distribution functions in a generic, nonequilibrium situation.

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