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Acceso AbiertoCaracterización de la estructura y diversidad de las comunidades de hongos y briofitas asociados a distintos ambientes de la Reserva Natural Punta Lara(2021) Valdés, Fabricio EmanuelAvances y perspectivas sobre el proyecto de Tesis Doctoral del autor: “Caracterización de la estructura y diversidad de las comunidades de hongos y briofitas asociados a distintos ambientes de la Reserva Natural Punta Lara”.Directora: Dra. Marta Noemí Cabello Co-Directora: Dra. Alejandra Gabriela Becerra
Acceso AbiertoCoriolopsis rigida, a potential model of white‑rot fungi that produce extracellular laccases(2014) Saparrat, Mario; Balatti, Pedro Alberto; Arambarri, Angélica M.; Martínez, María J.In the last two decades, a significant amount of work aimed at studying the ability of the white-rot fungus Coriolopsis rigida strain LPSC no. 232 to degrade lignin, sterols, as well as several hazardous pollutants like dyes and aliphatic and aromatic fractions of crude oil, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, has been performed. Additionally, C. rigida in association with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi appears to enhance plant growth, albeit the physiological and molecular bases of this effect remain to be elucidated. C. rigida's ability to degrade lignin and lignin-related compounds and the capacity to transform the aromatic fraction of crude oil in the soil might be partially ascribed to its ligninolytic enzyme system. Two extracellular laccases are the only enzymatic components of its lignin-degrading system. We reviewed the most relevant findings regarding the activity and role of C. rigida LPSC no. 232 and its laccases and discussed the work that remains to be done in order to assess, more precisely, the potential use of this fungus and its extracellular enzymes as a model in several applied processes.
Acceso AbiertoNovedades y nuevas citas de musgos (Bryophyta) de la Reserva Natural Punta Lara (Buenos Aires, Argentina)(2021) Valdés, Fabricio Emanuel; Fernandes Peralta, Denilson; Cottet, Agustina Celeste; Savoretti, Adolfina; Cabello, Marta NoemíBackground and aims: A list of mosses recorded in Punta Lara Natural Reserve (Buenos Aires, Argentina) is presented, increasing the knowledge of the diversity and distribution of mosses in the country. M&M: The specimens were collected and identified according to conventional taxonomic criteria and deposited in the Herbarium of the Spegazzini Institute (LPS). Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) records were consulted as a source of information about the species distribution. Results: Fifteen species of mosses distributed in 11 families were identified in Punta Lara Natural Reserve. The genus Thamnomalia Olsson, Enroth & Quandt, represented by Thamnomalia glabella (Hedw.) Olsson, Enroth & Quandt and the species Sematophyllum adnatum (Michx.) E. Britton are recorded for the first time for Argentina. Discussion and Conclusions: Two species are new records for Argentina and 11 species are recorded for the first time for Buenos Aires province. Several species are tropical, extending their distribution towards temperate regions.
Acceso AbiertoMycological studies as a tool to improve the control of building materials biodeterioration(2020) Gámez-Espinosa, Erasmo; Bellotti, Natalia; Deyá, Cecilia; Cabello, Marta NoemíFungal deterioration of building materials causes economic losses due to restoration processes and because it affects the health of the people exposed. Therefore, it is necessary to obtain highly deteriorating fungal strains to carry out studies focused on biodeterioration control. The aim of this research was to study the mycobiota involved in deterioration of facades through the isolation and characterization of fungal strains. In this sense, this paper characterizes the mycobiota that contributes to the deterioration of brick and concrete present in those places. Samples were taken from bricks and concrete with visible biodeterioration of the Cathedral of La Plata and the Experimental Station of the Centro de Investigación y Desarrollo en Tecnología de Pinturas. Relative density, apparition relative frequency, and ecological category of fungi isolates were determined. The deteriorating attributes were determined by carbonate dissolution test, pigment secretion assay, acid production test and brick weight variation. Cladosporium sp., Penicillium sp. and Aspergillus sp. were the taxa with the highest apparition relative frequency and abundance. Aspergillus niger MN371276, Lasiodiplodia theobromae MN371283, Cladosporium sphaerospermum MN371394, Penicillium commune MN371392 and Arthothelium spectabile MT071822 were the strains with the highest biodeteriorant activity. These strains can be used in studies on biodeterioration control of buildings materials.
Acceso AbiertoContribución de hongos micorrícicos nativos a la nutrición fosforada y su impacto en la partición de fotoasimilados de soja.(2020) Faggioli, Valeria; Cabello, Marta Noemí; Melchiorre, N. Mariana; Covacechi, FernandaEstrategias de asociaciones entre plantas con hongos micorrícicos arbusculares (HMA) podrían ser utilizadas para garantizar una eficiente nutrición de fósforo (P). Sin embargo, se desconoce si prácticas usuales de largo plazo destinadas a la producción de soja en nuestro país, han deprimido el potencial de colonización y de promoción de crecimiento vegetal por las comunidades de HMA nativos. Nuestro objetivo fue cuantificar el aporte en crecimiento, absorción de P y partición de fotoasimilados en soja aportados por HMA nativos de monocultivo de soja de larga duración ante oferta diferencial de P. Se instaló un ensayo en invernáculo durante 60 días con 4 tratamientos (con “+“ y sin “-“ HMA nativos de un monocultivo de soja de larga duración instalado en Córdoba; con “+“ y sin “–“ fertilización con P por aplicación semanal de 15,5 mgP maceta-1). Los HMA nativos colonizaron las raíces de soja y favorecieron su crecimiento aun cuando la oferta de P no fue limitante. La colonización micorrícica intra y extra-radical, así como la oferta de P, favorecieron el crecimiento, la acumulación de P y el contenido y la partición de azúcares en las plantas de soja. Las plantas crecidas en presencia de micorrizas (+HMA) sin oferta de P (-P) mostraron mayor acumulación de materia seca y P. Aunque no se evidenció incremento significativo en la absorción de P por las micorrizas, las plantas en la condición +HMA y +P mostraron respuesta positiva a la micorrización en el crecimiento aéreo. Las plantas que crecieron ante +P y -HMA no fueron las de mayor crecimiento. Esto resalta la importancia de favorecer prácticas de manejo que, combinadas con la fertilización moderada destinada a la reposición de nutrientes, favorezca el mantenimiento de poblaciones de HMA nativas que pueden contribuir a un uso más eficiente de la fertilidad del suelo y favorecer el crecimiento del cultivo de soja.
Acceso AbiertoSoil mycobiota under managed and unmanaged forests of Nothofagus pumilio in Tierra del Fuego, Argentina(New Zealand Forest Research Institute, 2019) Elíades, Lorena; Cabello, Marta Noemí; Pancotto, Verónica; Moretto, Alicia; Ferreri, Natalia A.; Saparrat, Mario; Barrera, Marcelo D.Background: Management practices can modify the productivity of forests and the associated microbial diversity of soil. The soil mycobiota is considered a key factor in the ecological functions of forests. Forests of Nothofagus pumilio (Poepp. & Endl.) Krasser (Nothofagaceae) are the main source of timber and one of the most important economic resources in the province of Tierra del Fuego (Argentina). However, there is no information on the impact of forest management interventions for the soil mycobiota, which can be reliable biological indicators of disturbance. Methods: Fungi were isolated from samples of soil collected under several Nothofagus pumilio forests subjected to different types of management and periods of time since the intervention. Types of management were represented by harvested forest with a shelter wood cutting, stockpile area and control forest without intervention and the periods of time since intervention were 1, 5–10 and 50 years. Species richness, evenness and Shannon’s diversity index of the mycobiota in each condition of management were calculated. Additionally, the effect of seasonality was analysed. Results: The soil mycobiota was represented by 70 taxa. Richness and/or Shannon’s diversity index of the mycobiota between undisturbed forest and stockpile area were higher in May (autumn) than in September or November. There were no differences in mycobiota diversity between dates in the harvested forest. Conclusions: Our results indicate that the forest intervention per se did not negatively affect the soil culturable mycobiota composition of N. pumilio forests in Tierra del Fuego (Argentina).
Acceso AbiertoEffects of endophytic Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) on biological and reproductive parameters and food preference of the soybean pest Helicoverpa gelotopoeon(Science Direct, 2019) Russo, María Leticia; Scorsetti, Ana Clara; Vianna, María Florencia; Allegrucci, Natalia; Ferreri, Natalia; Cabello, Marta Noemí; Pelizza, Sebastian A.Objectives: We studied Beauveria bassiana ability to endophytic colonize soybean and its effects on some biological and reproductive parameters and on the food preference of Helicoverpa gelotopoeon, a polyphagous plague of several agronomic crops. Methods: A suspension of 1x108 conidia ml-1 of B. bassiana (LPSC 1098), was inoculated in soybean plants using the leaf spraying method. H. gelotopoeon survival, developement, fecundity and fertility were registered to evaluate fungal effect. Also, food preference was determined by the free-choice method. Results: B. bassiana as an endophyte adversely affected the duration of the larval stages (L1, L2, L3, L4) and of the adult stages, as well as the total duration of the life cycle. Furthermore, the oviposition period, fecundity and fertility of H. gelotopoeon decreased. This is the first report of decreased consumption of soybean leaves by H. gelotopoeon due to endophytic B. bassiana. Conclusions: This investigation shows that endophytic fungi could be considered as useful microorganisms for the integrated pest management
EmbargadoMycobiota associated with human cadavers: first record in Argentina(2018) Tranchida, María Cecilia; Bravo Berruezo, Lucas Emiliano; Stenglein, Sebastián; Cabello, Marta NoemíCadavers are an abundant source of organic matter. During their decomposition, a variety of organisms – insects, bacteria, and fungi – can feed on them. Within the ambit of forensic science, fungi have thus far received little attention. Nevertheless, the current study found that forensic mycology can be developed as a tool that provides useful evidence for case resolution. The fungal biota found growing on the surface of two cadavers with different post-mortem intervals (PMI) was examined and identified. The fungal samples were cultured and identified by morphology and molecular genetics. Fungal species such as Arthrinium arundinis, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus terreus, Candida guillermondii, Candida lypolitica, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Chrysosporium merdarium, and Scopulariopsis brevicaulis were registered. These findings are the first contributions to forensic mycology from Argentine research. In combination with the joint investigations of forensic researchers worldwide, these results should contribute in the discussion of the use of mycology as a valid forensic tool in which fungi can provide evidence in complex cases.
EmbargadoPb accumulation in spores of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi(Elsevier, 2018) Salazar, M. Julieta; Menoyo, Eugenia; Faggioli, Valeria; Geml, Jozsef; Cabello, Marta Noemí; Rodríguez, Judith H.; Marro, Nicolás; Pardo, Alejandro; Pignata, M. Luisa; Becerra, Alejandra C.Heavymetal (HM)pollution of soils is one of themost important and unsolved environmental problemsaffecting the world, with alternative solutions currently being investigated through different approaches. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are soil inhabitants that form symbiotic relationships with plants. This alleviates HM toxicity in the host plant, thereby enhancing tolerance. However, the few investigations that have addressed the presence of metals in the fungus structures were performed under experimental conditions, with there being no results reported for Pb. The current study represents a first approximation concerning the capability of spores to accumulate Pb in the AMF community present in a Pb polluted soil under field conditions.Micro X-ray fluorescence was utilized to obtain a direct observation of Pb in spores, and the innovation of total reflection X-ray fluorescence was applied to obtain Pb quantification in spores. The AMF community included species of Ambisporaceae, Archaeosporaceae, Gigasporacea, Glomeraceae and Paraglomeraceae, andwas tolerant to high Pb concentrations in soil. Pb accumulation in AMF spores was demonstrated at the community level and corroborated by direct observation of the most abundant spores, which belonged to the Gigasporaceae group. Spore Pb accumulation is possibly dependent on the AMF and host plant species.