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Proliferative and morphological changes induced by vanadium compounds on Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts

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Vanadium compounds are shown to have a mitogenic effect on fibroblast cells. The effects of vanadate, vanadyl and pervanadate on the proliferation and morphological changes of Swiss 3T3 cells in culture are compared. Vanadium derivatives induced cell proliferation in a biphasic manner, with a toxic-like effect at doses over 50 mM, after 24 h of incubation. Vanadyl and vanadate were equally potent at 2.5–10 mM. At 50 mM vanadate inhibited cell proliferation, whereas slight inhibition was observed at 100 mM of vanadyl. At 10 mM pervanadate was as potent as vanadate and vanadyl in stimulating fibroblast proliferation, but no effect was observed at lower concentrations. A pronounced cytotoxic-like effect was induced by pervanadate at 50 mM. All of these effects were accompanied by morphological changes: transformation of fibroblast shape from polygonal to fusiform; retraction with cytoplasm condensation; and loss of lamellar processes. The magnitude of these transformations correlates with the potency of vanadium derivatives to induce a cytotoxic-like effect: pervanadate > vanadate > vanadyl. These data suggest that the oxidation state and coordination geometry of vanadium determine the degree of the cytotoxicity

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growth factors

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