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Advanced glycation end products and strontium ranelate promote osteogenic differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells in vitro: preventive role of vitamin D

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Advanced glycation end products (AGE) have been demonstrated to induce the osteogenic transdifferentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). Strontium ranelate (SR) is an anti-osteoporotic agent that has both anti-catabolic and anabolic actions on bone tissue. However, in the last years SR has been associated with an increase of cardiovascular risk. We hypothesize that SR can increase the osteoblastic trans-differentiation of VSMC and the induction of extracellular calcifications, an effect that could be potentiated in the presence of AGE and inhibited by simultaneous administration of vitamin D. The present results of our in vitro experiments demonstrate that AGE and SR alone or in combination, stimulate L-type calcium channels, causing an increase in reactive oxygen species and activation of both ERK and NFkB, with the final effect of promoting the osteogenic shift of VSMC. Importantly, these in vitro effects of AGE and/or SR can be prevented by co-incubation with vitamin D.

Palabras clave
Advanced glycation end products
Vascular smooth muscle cells
Strontium ranelate
Vitamin D

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