- ArtículoAcceso AbiertoNanostructured fumarate copolymer-chitosan crosslinked scaffold: an in vitro osteochondrogenesis regeneration study(2018)In the tissue engineering field, the design of the scaffold inspired on the natural occurring tissue is of vital importance. Ideally, the scaffold surface must promote cell growth and differentiation, while promote angiogenesis in the in vivo implant of the scaffold. On the other hand, the material selection must be biocompatible and the degradation times should meet tissue reparation times. In the present work, we developed a nanofibrous scaffold based on chitosan crosslinked with diisopropylfumarate-vinyl acetate copolymer using anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) templates. We have previously demonstrated its biocompatibility properties with low cytotoxicity and proper degradation times. Now, we extended our studies to demonstrate that it can be successfully nanostructured using the AAO templates methodology, obtaining a nanorod-like scaffold with a diameter comparable to those of collagen fibers of the bone matrix (170 and 300 nm). The nanorods obtained presented a very homogeneous pattern in diameter and length, and supports cell attachment and growth. We also found that both osteoblastic and chondroblastic matrix production were promoted on bone marrow progenitor cells and primary condrocytes growing on the scaffolds, respectively. In addition, the nanostructured scaffold presented no cytotoxicity as it was evaluated using a model of macrophages on culture.
- ArtículoAcceso AbiertoAdvanced glycation end products and strontium ranelate promote osteogenic differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells in vitro: preventive role of vitamin D(2017)Advanced glycation end products (AGE) have been demonstrated to induce the osteogenic transdifferentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). Strontium ranelate (SR) is an anti-osteoporotic agent that has both anti-catabolic and anabolic actions on bone tissue. However, in the last years SR has been associated with an increase of cardiovascular risk. We hypothesize that SR can increase the osteoblastic trans-differentiation of VSMC and the induction of extracellular calcifications, an effect that could be potentiated in the presence of AGE and inhibited by simultaneous administration of vitamin D. The present results of our in vitro experiments demonstrate that AGE and SR alone or in combination, stimulate L-type calcium channels, causing an increase in reactive oxygen species and activation of both ERK and NFkB, with the final effect of promoting the osteogenic shift of VSMC. Importantly, these in vitro effects of AGE and/or SR can be prevented by co-incubation with vitamin D.
- ArtículoAcceso AbiertoFumarate copolymer–chitosan cross-linked scaffold directed to osteochondrogenic tissue engineering(2016)Natural and synthetic cross-linked polymers allow the improvement of cytocompatibility and mechanical properties of the individual polymers. In osteochondral lesions of big size it will be required the use of scaffolds to repair the lesion. In this work a borax cross-linked scaffold based on fumarate-vinyl acetate copolymer and chitosan directed to osteochondrondral tissue engineering is developed. The cross-linked scaffolds and physical blends of the polymers are analyzed in based on their morphology, glass transition temperature, and mechanical properties. In addition, the stability, degradation behavior, and the swelling kinetics are studied. The results demonstrate that the borax cross-linked scaffold exhibits hydrogel behavior with appropriated mechanical properties for bone and cartilage tissue regeneration. Bone marrow progenitor cells and primary chondrocytes are used to demonstrate its osteo- and chondrogenic properties, respectively, assessing the osteoand chondroblastic growth and maturation, without evident signs of cytotoxicity as it is evaluated in an in vitro system.
- ArtículoAcceso AbiertoEffects of fructose-induced metabolic syndrome on rat skeletal cells and tissue, and their responses to metformin treatment(2017)Aims: Deleterious effects of metabolic syndrome (MS) on bone are still controversial. In this study we evaluated the effects of a fructose-induced MS, and/or an oral treatment with metformin on the osteogenic potential of bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC), as well as on bone formation and architecture. Methods: 32 male 8 week-old Wistar rats were assigned to four groups: control (C), control plus oral metformin (CM), rats receiving 10% fructose in drinking water (FRD), and FRD plus metformin (FRDM). Samples were collected to measure blood parameters, and to perform pQCT analysis and static and dynamic histomorphometry. MSC were isolated to determine their osteogenic potential. Results: Metformin improved blood parameters in FRDM rats. pQCTand static and dynamic histomorphometry showed no significant differences in trabecular and cortical bone parameters among groups. FRD reduced TRAP expression and osteocyte density in trabecular bone and metformin only normalized osteocyte density. FRD decreased the osteogenic potential of MSC and metformin administration could revert some of these parameters. Conclusions: FRD-induced MS shows reduction in MSC osteogenic potential, in osteocyte density and in TRAP activity. Oral metformin treatment was able to prevent trabecular osteocyte loss and the reduction in extracellular mineralization induced by FRD-induced MS.
- ArtículoAcceso AbiertoTautomerizable β-ketonitrile copolymers for bone tissue engineering: studies of biocompatibility and cytotoxicity(2015)β-Ketonitrile tautomeric copolymers have demonstrated tunable hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity properties according to surrounding environment, and mechanical properties similar to those of human bone tissue. Both characteristic properties make them promising candidates as biomaterials for bone tissue engineering. Based on this knowledge we have designed two scaffolds based on β-ketonitrile tautomeric copolymers which differ in chemical composition and surface morphology. Two of them were nanostructured, using an anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) template, and the other two obtained by solvent casting methodology. They were used to evaluate the effect of the composition and their structural modifications on the biocompatibility, cytotoxicity and degradation properties. Our results showed that the nanostructured scaffolds exhibited higher degradation rate by macrophages than casted scaffolds (6 and 2.5% of degradation for nanostructured and casted scaffolds, respectively), a degradation rate compatible with bone regeneration times. We also demonstrated that the β-ketonitrile tautomeric based scaffolds supported osteoblastic cell proliferation and differentiation without cytotoxic effects, suggesting that these biomaterials could be useful in the bone tissue engineering field.